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Blockchain Engineering

Blockchain architecture.

Enables decentralised and trustless operations.



The blockchain infrastructure consists of 5 layers:

  • The hardware infrastructure layer is the foundation of blockchain technology, comprising the physical devices that power the network.
  • The data layer is responsible for storing and retrieving information.
  • The network layer facilitates communication between nodes on the blockchain.
  • The consensus layer ensures that all nodes on the network agree on the current state of the blockchain.
  • The application layer provides an interface for users to interact with the blockchain.

In addition, another classification is used by the crypto community to describe the same architectural layers, and it goes as follows:

  • Layer 0: includes hardware and data layer
  • Layer 1: contains network consensus layer
  • Layer 2: Represents networks built on top of existing blockchains helping to solve their underlying issues
  • Layer 3: Is the application layer, hosting applications for users to interact with.

And finally, Layer 0 to 3 refer to blockchains based on their characteristics. For example:

L0: Polkadot, Avalanche, Cardano provide cross-chain operability protocols L1: Bitcoin, Ethereum, Solana provide base layer blockchain networks L2: Optimism, Polygon, Arbitrum provide scaling solutions built on top of underlying networks L3: Icon, Quant, IBC Protocol provide application layer solutions built on top of Layer 2 networks & offering specific solutions to some problems.

Modular or Integrated

How do you select the right blockchain architecture for your business model?

Rollup-as-a-Service, RaaS providers offer a suite of services and products that help developers launch rollups quickly and easily. Services include:

  • sequencing
  • indexing
  • analytics

RaaS providers save a significant amount of time and money as developers no longer need to spend months building and maintaining their own rollup infrastructure. Instead, they can focus on developing their applications and building their user base.